Halloween night, 1979, 16-year-old Shirley Lynette Ledford made one fatal mistake — trusting the two men who offered her a ride. Forty-eight hours later, a jogger found her naked remains on a random front lawn in Sunland, California. Posed with her legs apart, her mutilated corpse lay in an ivy patch.
No one could have imagined the horror she’d endured.
If you’re at all squeamish, you may want to stop reading. The following is a true account.
It all started in 1977 when 29-year-old Roy Norris met 36-year-old Lawrence Bittaker while incarcerated at California Men’s Colony in San Luis Obispo. The two men — later dubbed “The Toolbox Killers” — shared sexually violent fantasies, which led to a deadly pact. Upon release they’d planned to rape, torture, and murder teenage girls. Specifically, one girl of each teenage year from 13 – 19. Two years later, they teamed up on the outside and bought a silver 1977 GM cargo van. They nicknamed the van “Murder Mack.”
From February to June, 1979, this menacing duo picked up more than twenty female hitchhikers, not to assault but to practice luring girls into the van. They also used this time to search for desolated locales. In April, they discovered a secluded fire road in the San Gabriel Mountains. Crowbar in hand, Bittaker snapped the lock on the gate to the fire road and replaced it with his own.
All they needed now was a victim.
On June 24th, 16 year-old Lucinda Lynn Schaefer left her Presbyterian Church meeting in Redondo Beach. She couldn’t have known the evil that awaited her.
After Bittaker and Norris had finished constructing the bed in the rear of the van, beneath which they placed tools, clothes, and a cooler filled with beer and soda, they drove to the beach around 7:45 p.m. Lucinda was walking down a side street, and Bittaker remarked, “There’s a cute little blonde.” But their first attempt to entice her into the van was unsuccessful. Bribes of marijuana, beer, and a ride home didn’t work. So they drove passed her and parked alongside a driveway, where Norris exited the vehicle, slid open the side-door, and leaned into the van with his head and shoulders obscured from view. When Lucinda passed, she exchanged a few words with Norris before he pounced, dragging her into the van.
That moment sealed her fate.
With bound wrists and ankles, her mouth duct-taped, Lucinda had no way to defend herself. Despite her initial scream, the only thing she could control was denying these monsters the satisfaction of witnessing her pain.
“She displayed a magnificent state of self-control and composed acceptance of the conditions of which she had no control,” claimed Bittaker in a written statement. “She shed no tears, offered no resistance, and expressed no great concern for her safety. I guess she knew what was coming.”
With the radio volume at full-blast, Bittaker drove to their pre-arraigned spot in the mountains while Norris stayed in the back of the van with Lucinda. Once on the fire road each man raped Lucinda while the other “took a walk.” The only thing Lucinda asked for was “a second to pray” before Norris attempted to manually strangled her. Forty-five seconds in, and he became so freaked out by her protruding eyes he ran to the front bumper of the van, vomiting. Bittaker strangled Lucinda till her body wilted to the ground, where she went into convulsions. Then he wrapped a wire coat hanger around her throat and squeezed it tight with pliers — an act both men would repeat.
Norris and Bittaker rolled Lucinda’s dead body in a plastic shower curtain and tossed her into a canyon, where they expected wild animals to cover their heinous act.
A similar cycle occurred two weeks later when the murderous pair spotted 18-year-old Andrea Joy Hall hitchhiking along the Pacific Coast Highway. After raping and torturing Andrea, they forced her to pose for Polaroids. Sheer terror shone on her face as she pleaded for her life. Neither man listened. Instead, they drove an ice pick through her skull, strangled her, and then dumped her corpse off a cliff.
On September 3rd, Jackie Doris Gilliam and Jacqueline Leah Lamp waited at the bus stop near Hermosa Beach. Luring the two girls into the van with marijuana and a free ride worked. Until, the girls noticed Bittaker wasn’t driving toward the Pacific Coast Highway. Instead, he headed toward the San Gabriel Mountains. When 13-year-old Jacqueline slid open the side-door, Norris slammed her over the head with a pre-filled bag of lead weights, knocking her momentarily unconscious. He then attempted to bind and gag 15-year-old Jackie Gilliam, but Jacqueline regained composure and again tried to escape. Sadly, she was no match for Norris, who wrenched her arm behind her back and dragged her back into the van.
Meanwhile, Bittaker, noting the struggle was in full view of witnesses, stopped the van. To regain control he punched Jacqueline in the face, then assisted Norris in binding and gagging the two girls. When they finally arrived in the San Gabriel Mountains, Jackie and Jacqueline were held captive for nearly two full days while being repeatedly raped and forced to pose for pornographic Polaroids. Bittaker tape-recorded the first time he’d raped young Jackie, telling her to “feel free to express your pain.”
At trial, Norris claimed he buried the tape in a cemetery, but it’s never been recovered.
These poor girls were tortured in unimaginable ways, including having their breasts stabbed with an ice pick. Norris also tore off one of Jackie’s nipple with pliers.
Even death didn’t come swiftly. Bittaker drilled an ice pick into both of Jackie’s ears before strangling her to death. He beat Jacqueline with a sledgehammer, strangled her for fun, beat her again, and then strangled her to death. The Toolbox Killers tossed both bodies over an embankment into a California chaparral.
From the grave Shirley Lynette Ledford, whom I mentioned at the beginning of this post, ignited the strongest emotional response from the jury and courtroom audience when the prosecutor played 17 minutes of a tape recording which showed the amount of terror Shirley endured before death. The transcript of which you can find here. Before you do, I need to caution you. This isn’t easy reading, nor is it easy to listen to the first few minutes of the accompanying video, where Shirley’s blood-curdling screams carry through closed courtroom doors. This sweet, young girl endured masochist behavior at the hands of pure evil. Proceed at your own risk.
Some say 16-year-old Shirley Ledford accepted a ride on that fateful Halloween night because she recognized Bittaker from the restaurant where she’d worked as a part-time waitress. Apparently, Bittaker frequented the establishment. Moments after Shirley climbed inside the van, Bittaker drove to a secluded street while Norris drew a knife. He then bound and gagged Shirley with barricade tape.
The nightmare had begun.
Bittaker traded places with Norris, who drove aimlessly for over an hour as Bittaker tormented Shirley, ordering her to “scream louder. What’s the matter? Don’t you like to scream?”
On tape, Shirley pleaded with Bittaker. “No. Don’t touch me.” To which Bittaker replied, “Scream as loud as you wish,” and then slammed her with a sledgehammer, struck her breasts with his fist in order to, in his words, “beat them back into her chest.” As Bittaker raped and sodomized Shirley, he tortured her with pliers. At trial, Norris later described he heard, “screams … constant screams” from the rear of the van.
“We’ve all heard women scream in horror films … still, we know that no one is really screaming. Why? Simply because an actress can’t produce some sounds that convince us that something vile and heinous is happening. If you ever heard that tape, there is just no possible way that you’d not begin crying and trembling. I doubt you could listen to more than a full sixty seconds of it.” ~ Serial Killer Roy Norris
Keep in mind, Norris had an IQ of 135. So even though he tried to downplay his involvement during his testimony, he still switched places with Bittaker, and Norris the one who also switched on the tape recorder to memorialize his own sadistic treatment of Shirley. Make no mistake, both men were equally vicious. They had no empathy for the victims or their families. In my opinion, Norris deserved equal punishment, but he cut a deal and testified for the prosecution.
Back in the van, Shirley saw Norris grab the sledgehammer, and screamed, “Oh no!” Norris struck her in the left elbow, shattering the bone, but he didn’t stop there. Shirley begged him not to hit her again. In return, Norris struck that same elbow 25 more times. When he finally stopped, he glared at Shriley, who was sobbing, shaking, and terrified. “What are you sniveling about?” he said.
After two solid hours of agony, Norris finally killed Shirley by strangling her with a coat hanger, tightening the wire with pliers. Bittaker opted to pose her body on a random lawn in Sunland to gage the reaction of the media, and Norris agreed. As Bittaker played look-out Norris posed Shirley’s mutilated corpse on the ivy patch. With one last chance to humiliate this poor girl, he wrenched open her legs.
The autopsy revealed extensive blunt-force trauma to the face, head, breasts, left elbow, with her olecranon (the bony tip of the elbow) sustaining multiple fractures. Torn genitalia and rectum was caused in part by Bittaker raping her with pliers. Her left hand bore a puncture wound and she had a deep slash mark to a finger on her right hand. At trial, Bittaker claimed the tape recording was nothing but a threesome, but added that toward the very end Shirley Ledford pleaded for death.
Can you blame her?
Investigators eventually found the remains of Jacqueline Leah Lamp and Jackie Doris Gilliam in the San Gabriel Mountains. The bodies of Lucinda Schaefer and Andrea Hall remain undiscovered.
As for Bittaker, an initial execution date was set for December 29, 1989, which Bittaker appealed. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision of execution and set a new date of July 23, 1991. Again, Bittaker appealed. Only this time the court granted a stay of execution on July 9, 1991. As of 2017, Lawrence Bittaker remains on death row in San Quentin State Prison.
What happened to Norris? The parole board denied his request for release in 2009. Nonetheless, he will have served his full 45-year prison term in 2019. Just think, this monster will walk free in less than two years.
This Halloween, let’s all take a moment to remember these innocent victims who died way too young. Hug your children a little tighter tonight.